General plating solution ACTi’s plating solution
Figure 4: Coating Metallurgical Picture X 400
Conclusion: From the pictures, it is clear that
- In general pyrophosphate plating solution, copper coating’s crystal structure is irregular and crystal particle is relative large.
- In ACTi’s pyrophosphate plating solution, copper coating’s crystal structure is regular, crystal particle is fine and dense, coating surface is smooth, which decreases anode consumption and reduces cost.
- In ACTi’s pyrophosphate plating solution, the crystal seeds form faster, so higher production efficiency and saving energy sources can be gained.
Reasons: During electric crystallization, excess electric potential is the major factor to affect crystallization process. Excess electric potential is larger on cathode, crystal seeds form faster, which results in smaller crystal particles. On the opposite, excess electric potential is smaller, crystal seeds form slower, which results in bigger crystal particles. Figure 2 shows higher polarizing rate in ACTi’s than in general quality pyrophosphate plating solution, which matches the result from metallurgical study.